Primary Sources

Archival Sources

Correspondence with patients’ relatives and the Medical Superintendent, Devon Record Office, not catalogued.

Devon Minute Books, Devon Heritage Centre, Devon QS147/1-9.

Interviews with former employees at the Devon mental hospitals, Devon Heritage Centre, 6227A/HA/3/2/1-12.

Medical Superintendent’s Annual Reports, Devon Heritage Centre, Devon QS 117.

Medical Superintendent’s Monthly Reports, Devon Heritage Centre, 3769A/HIC/1-3.

The Annual Report of the Committee 1848-50.

The Report of the Committee on the proposed lunatic Asylum, Devon Heritage Centre, QS144/7.

Visitors’ Handbooks, Devon Heritage Centre, Devon, 3769A/HIA/1-3.


Books, Newspapers and Articles

Bucknill, J. Valedictory address. Journal of Mental Science 1861;7:309-342.

Bucknill J, Tuke DH. A manual of psychological medicine. Publisher unknown; 1879.

Cameron R. The philosophy of restraint in the management and treatment of the insane. Journal of Mental Science 1881-2;.28:519.

Fifth Annual Report of Inspectors of Lunatics, 1851, p. 6.

Historic Hansard website

Irvine E. Exe Vale Hospital, 1948-1974. Exeter: Devon Health Authority; 1976.

James S. Antimalarial chemotherapeutic tests at the Devon Mental Hospital. Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 1933;36:289-91.

Mortimer Granville J. The care and cure of the insane. London: Hardwicke & Bogue; 1877.

O’Hagan, M. Adult mental health services in Devon: a high level recovery assessment. 2008. Report commissioned by the Devon Primary Care Trust, Devon Partnership Trust and Torbay Care Trust. Published online: (last accessed 15 October 2012).

Royal Commission (1926) Report of the Royal Commission on Lunacy and Mental Disorders (Cmd. 2700). London: Stationary Office.

Trewman’s Exeter Flying Post, 16th July 1829, p. 3.


Secondary Sources

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Adair A, Forsythe B, Melling J. A danger to the public? Disposing of pauper lunatics in late-Victorian and Edwardian England. Plympton St Mary Union and the Devon County Asylum 1867 – 1914. Medical History 1998;42:1-25.

Baker A. Observations on the effect of Largactil in psychiatric illness. Journal of Mental Science 1955;101:175-182.

Berrios G. Psychosurgery in Britain and elsewhere: a conceptual history. In: Berrios G, Freeman H, editors. 150 Years of British psychiatry, 1841-1991. London: Gaskell; 1991, p. 180-196.

Bourne H. The insulin myth. Lancet 1953;265: 964–968.

Cookson J, Taylor D, Catona C. Use of drugs in psychiatry: the evidence from psychopharmacology. 5th Revised edition edition. Cromwell Press Ltd: Trowbridge; 2002.

Fennell P. Treatment without Consent: Law, psychiatry and the treatment of mentally disordered people since 1845. London: Routledge; 1996.

Finnane M. Insanity and the Insane in Post-Famine Ireland. London: Croom Helm; 1981.

Fleming G, Golla F, Walter W. Electric-convulsion therapy of schizophrenia. Lancet II 1939, 1353-5.

Forsythe, B. Hope and suffering at the Devon County Pauper Lunatic Asylum at Exminster 1845-1914. Southern History23, 2001, 116 – 147.

Foucault M. Madness and Civilisation. A history of insanity in the age of reason. London: Tavistock Publications; 1971.

Freeman W, Watts J. Prefrontal lobotomy in the treatment of mental disorders. Southern Medicine Journal 1937;30: 23-31.

Goffman E. Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Harmondsworth: Penguin; 1968.

Healy D. The Creation of Psychopharmacology. London: Harvard University Press; 2002, p. 51.

Healy D. Psychiatric drugs explained. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2003.

Henderson D, Gillespie R. A text-book of psychiatry for students and practitioners. Oxford: OUP; 1936.

Hollister L. The pre-benzodiazepine era. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1983;15:9–13.

Houston F. A project for a mental-health village settlement. Lancet 1955;266:1133-4.

Kennedy A. Convulsion therapy in schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Science 1937;83: 609-629.

Janicak P, Davis J, Preskorn S, Ayd F. Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacotherapy, 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1997.

Joanette Y, Stemmer B, Assal G et al. From Theory to Practice: the unconventional contribution of Gottlieb Burckhardt to psychosurgery. Brain Language 1993;45:572-87.

MacKenzie C. Psychiatry for the rich: a history of Ticehurst Private Asylum, 1792-1914. London: Routledge; 1993.

McCrae N. ‘A violent thunderstorm’: Cardiazol treatment in British mental hospitals. History of Psychiatry 2006;17: 67-90.

Melling J, Forsythe B, Adair R. Families, communities and the legal regulation of lunacy in Victorian England: assessments of crime, violence and welfare in admissions to the Devon Asylum, 1845-1914. In Bartlett P, Wright D, editors. Outside the walls of the asylum. The history of care in the community 1750-2000. London: Athlone; 1999, p. 153-180.

Pearce D. The operation of the 1930 Mental Treatment Act in local psychiatric hospitals. The introduction of voluntary patients and new treatment regimes in the Devon Mental Hospital, 1931-1938. Unpublished PhD thesis, 2002.

Pearce D. Family, gender and class in psychiatric patient care during the 1930s: The 1930 Mental Treatment Act and the Devon Mental Hospital. In Dale, P, Melling J, editors. Mental illness and learning disability since 1850. London: Routledge; 2006, p. 112-130.

Philo C. ‘Not at our seaside’. Community Opposition to a Nineteenth Century Branch Asylum. Area 1987;4:297-302.

Rothman D. The Discovery of the Asylum. Social order and disorder in the new Republic. Aldine Transaction: New Brunswick & London; 2001.

Scull A. Museums of madness: the social organization of insanity in nineteenth-century England. London: Allen Lane; 1979.

Scull A. The most solitary of afflictions: Madness and Society in Britain, 1700-1900. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1993.

Scull A. Somatic treatments and the historiography of psychiatry. History of Psychiatry 1994;5:1-12.

Scull A, MacKenzie C, Hervey N. Masters of Bedlam: the transformation of the mad-doctoring trade. Princeton: Princeston University Press; 1996, p. 189.

Shorter E. A History of Psychiatry: from the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac. New York : John Wiley & Sons; 1997.

Slater E. Psychiatry in the thirties. Contemporary Review 1975;226:70–5.

Slear G. Psychiatric patients: clinically improved, but socially disabled. Social Work 1959;4:66.

Suzuki A. The household and the care of lunatics in eighteenth-century London. In Horden P, Smith R, editors. The locus of care. Families, communities, institutions and the provision of welfare since antiquity. London: Routledge; 1997, p. 153-175.

Swazey J. Chlorpromazine in Psychiatry: a study of therapeutic innovation. Cambridge: MIT Press; 1974.

Tooth G, Brooke E. Trends in the mental hospital population and their effect on future planning. Lancet 1961, 710-713.

Whitrow M. Wagner-Jauregg and fever therapy. Medical History 1990;34:294-310.

Wilson I. A study of hypoglycaemic shock treatment in schizophrenia. London: HMSO; 1936.

Windholz G, Witherspoon L. Sleep as a cure for schizophrenia: an historical episode. History of Psychiatry 1993;4:83-93.

Wright D. Getting out of the asylum: understanding the confinement of the insane in the nineteenth century. Social History of Medicine 1997;10:137-155.

Wright D. The discharge of pauper lunatics from county asylums in mid-Victorian England: the case of Buckinghamshire, 1853-1872. In Melling J, Forsythe B, editors. Insanity, institutions and society, 1800-1914: A social history of madness in comparative perspective. London: Routledge; 1999, p. 93-112.